Book Details Author: Robert V. Kail,John C. Cavanaugh Pages: Binding: Hardcover Brand: ISBN: Description Feel intimidated by the life-span course? You're in good hands with HUMAN DEVELOPMENT: A LIFE-SPAN VIEW, 8th Edition, as your guide. Trove: Find and get Australian resources. Books, images, historic newspapers, maps, archives and more. Human development: a life-span view by Robert V Kail · Human development: a life-span view. by Robert V Kail; John C Cavanaugh. Print book. English.
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Human Development: A Life-Span View 7th Edition. The book is PDF Version and can be downloaded immediately to any kind of devices. Guarantee %. Comprehensive, succinct, and applied, HUMAN DEVELOPMENT: A LIFE-SPAN VIEW -- now in its eighth edition -- has proven its ability to capture students'. Essentials of Human Development: A Life-Span View. Robert V. Kail and John C. Cavanaugh. Publisher: Jon-David Hague. Executive Editor: Jaime Perkins.
Rudolf Jaenisch, a stem-cell scientist at the Whitehead Institute in Cambridge, Massachusetts, doubts that researchers will ever be able to rule out the possibility of mosaicism in an embryo. And methods to assay the DNA sequence in an embryo rely on removing a small number of cells for testing, and then destroying them.
Off-target edits: how many ‘mistakes’ are too many?
This technique eliminated mosaicism, the authors said. But it will need to be tested many more times to be sure, says Perry. And genome editing so early in development creates a new problem: there is no way to distinguish embryos that carry the genetic disease from those that do not at the single-cell stage, cautions Jaenisch. Would any degree of mosaicism be tolerable? It might depend on the condition being treated, says Krishanu Saha, a bioengineer at the University of Wisconsin—Madison.
CRISPR babies: when will the world be ready?
With all these technological barriers still to cross, there has been comparatively little discussion of how heritable genome editing would be tested in clinical trials, and what data would be needed before the technique can make that step. The requirements should be high, because the changes could be passed on to future generations, says Guoping Feng, a neuroscientist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge.
As with gene editing, it could allow parents to avoid passing along dangerous mutations. And there are still questions about the safety of this procedure — some countries, including the United States, do not allow it.
IVF took more than 30 years to move from laboratory testing to a healthy pregnancy.
Human Development : a Life-Span View
Human clinical trials would present a host of fresh challenges. For example, for how long will genome-edited children need to be followed up before the technique can be considered safe? How will researchers track the children of those children to look for transgenerational effects? The panel aims to publish a report next year. Despite the sizeable scientific barriers to heritable gene editing, the more difficult issues are likely to be ethical and social. Consultations have been ongoing, and reports and position statements have been pouring in from scientific societies around the world.
In March, a panel convened by World Health Organization WHO concluded that it would currently be irresponsible to make heritable edits to the genome in humans.
Achieving global consensus is a daunting task and, at present, most of the consultations have been conducted in wealthy, Western countries.
Kewal Krishan, an anthropologist at Panjab University in Chandigarh, India, says that there has been little discussion of heritable gene editing in India, for example.
And Andoh notes that in some African cultures, the pressure to have children is intense, and women can be ostracized from the community for failing to do so. This could foster demand. Demand is another question entirely. For now, there is not a huge clamour among people affected by disease, says Sharon Terry, president and chief executive of Genetic Alliance, an advocacy group in Washington DC.
Initial enthusiasm has been tempered over time, both as debates advanced and as patient advocates realized that treatments were not imminent, she says.
Many families at risk of passing on genetic diseases tell her that, for now, they just want a way to screen their embryos for mutations. But screening is hardly a panacea. Some members of the deaf community, for example, welcome the thought of having children who are deaf, and might be concerned that ways to edit deafness mutations from the genome would increase pressure on families to do so.
Public surveys often find support for heritable genome editing — if it is shown to be safe and used to treat genetic diseases. Many scientists and ethicists make a similar distinction, between modifying the genome to enhance athletic ability, for example, or to change eye colour, versus treating or preventing disease. And even then, there is debate about which diseases might warrant such an approach.
But when it comes to editing a gene such as PCSK9 to prevent high cholesterol and potentially stave off heart disease, things are decidedly more grey, says Feng. Book Ebook download any format Human Development: SlideShare Explore Search You.
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An annual anal Embed Size px. Start on. Show related SlideShares at end. WordPress Shortcode. Published in: Full Name Comment goes here. When absorption of Pi is blocked by the phosphate binder sevelamer or cellular uptake is inhibited by phosphonoformic acid PFA , larval development is delayed. The delayed development can be rescued by the addition of extra Pi to the culture medium.
In contrast, adult flies exposed to high dietary Pi die prematurely. Thus, too little or too much Pi can have negative effects in flies as in humans Furthermore, if principal cells of the Malpighian tubules are genetically ablated to induce fly CKD, blood Pi hemolymph Pi increases and flies die prematurely. Conversely, restriction of Pi absorption from the culture medium with sevelamer extends the life span of flies with CKD.
Additionally, when dietary Pi is restricted by addition of sevelamer to the culture medium or when cellular uptake of Pi is reduced after treatment with PFA, even otherwise normal adult flies live longer 21 , In light of its high translational relevance, we here further characterized fly Pi homeostasis and show that a high Pi diet stimulates formation of Malpighian tubule stones.
These stones likely contribute to reduced longevity of adult flies when cultured on high Pi medium.
Our findings are consistent with a key role of MFS2 mediating Pi excretion by the Malpighian tubules to lower blood Pi.
Results High dietary phosphate Pi is accompanied by the development of hyperphosphatemia and Malpighian tubule deposits To begin to understand why flies die when exposed to high dietary Pi 21 , 22 we first determined hemolymph blood Pi in young and in aged flies on standard medium C , medium supplemented with 30 mM sodium phosphate pH 6.
We observed that young flies maintain normal hemolymph Pi levels on P30 medium at young age while exposure of adults to P30 for 30 days raised blood Pi Fig. Even exposure of day-old flies for 8 days to P30 raised blood Pi Fig.
These findings suggest that homeostatic mechanisms are in place that keep blood Pi stable in young flies. These homeostatic mechanisms deteriorate over their lifespan and lead to hyperphosphatemia. Figure 1 High dietary phosphate Pi is accompanied by the development of hyperphosphatemia and Malpighian tubule deposits. Alizarin Red stain of native preparations of anterior Malpighian tubules representative of 4—8 tubule pairs.
Full size image We next postulated that hyperphosphatemia may reduce life span by causing tissue mineralization, as previously described To look for tissue mineralization we used paraffin sections obtained from adult flies and the von Kossa Pi stain and the alizarin red calcium stain Fig. We observed physiological formation Ca-Pi deposits in the Malpighian tubules that are the ancestors of renal tubules in higher species The alizarin red stain can also be detected by epifluorescent technique in native tubule preparations Fig.
Using these staining modalities, we observed that Ca-Pi deposits increased after culture of flies on P30 medium. Tubule deposits co-localize with stellate cells and consist of microspheres that contain calcium and phosphate Ca-Pi deposits co-localize with the distal, stellate cell-rich segment of the tubules Fig.
Scanning electron microscopic analysis showed microspheres, which are typical for Ca-Pi apatite Fig. Mineral composition was analyzed by energy-dispersive X-ray-spectroscopy EDX microanalysis and confirmed presence of calcium and phosphorus in individual microspheres Fig. Figure 2 Tubule deposits co-localize with stellate cells and consist of microspheres that contain calcium and phosphate.
Full size image Tubule calcium-phosphate deposits form in anterior tubules, increase with age and at high culture temperature To quantify the Ca-Pi deposits we initially attempted to measure Pi content of Malpighian tubule preps directly, but found, that abundant intracellular Pi released during tubule cell lysis adds to that measured in Ca-Pi deposits which considerably interferes with this assay Fig. Conversely, tubule calcium, which is known to be several orders of magnitude lower inside tubule cells, corresponded closely to the extent of extracellular tubule Ca-Pi deposits observed microscopically.
Consistent with findings reported by others 26 we furthermore observed that anterior tubules have fold more deposits compared to posterior tubules Fig. While there is no difference between males and females Fig.
At higher culture temperatures, flies consume more water and become dehydrated more easily But a study published this month using data from the UK Biobank found that the deletion might also shorten lifespan 9.
Engel proposes a dialogue between the patient and the doctor in order to find the most effective treatment solution. Abstract Cage fish farming is an important economic activity in Brazil where tilapia Oreochromis niloticus is the main cultivated species. The efficient organization chronological, but with a few chapters on key topical issues allows this text to be briefer than many other texts for the same course.
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